The highest point of the LORESTAN state is the Oshtorankuh peak at 4,050 m. The low-lying areas being in the southernmost sector of the province are approximately 500 m above sea level. Oak forest covers the outer slopes, together with, maple, walnut, and almond trees.
Western Lorestan comprises a series of parallel fertile valleys running high in the Zagros mountains. The Pusht-e Kuh region is in the western foothills of the Kabir Kuh range. The Pish-e Kuh region lies to the east of Kabir Kuh. This area had human settlements during the Bronze Age as early as the mid–3rd millennium B.C.
Climatically, the province can be divided into three parts: the mountainous regions, such as Borujerd, Dorud, Azna, Nurabad, experience cold winters and moderate summers. In the central region, the spring season begins from mid-February and lasts till mid-May. However, southern areas such as Pol-e-Dokhtar, are under the influence of the warm air currents of Khuzestan, have hot summers.
The climate is generally sub-humid continental. It lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lorestan is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains. At Khorramabad, the average annual precipitation totals 530 millimeters of rainfall equivalent, while up to 1270 millimeters, may fall on the highest mountains. The months June to September are usually absolutely dry, but Khorramabad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December and January.
Lorestan is located on Tehran–Bandar Emam Khomeyni highway, one of the most important roads in terms of good transportation. The road connects Arak in Markazi state to Andimeshk in northern Khuzestan via Borujerd, Khorramabad and Pol Dokhtar.
Due to its mountainous conditions, Lorestan has one of the important railways in Iran. The Lorestan rail route is 215 km long, with 15 stations having been established. Lorestan has 133 railway tunnels.
In Khuzestan, Lur tribes are primarily concentrated in the northern part of the province, while in Ilam they are mainly in the southern region.